A brief discussion on the fire protection design of low-rise residential buildings

  The necessity of designing fire protection system

  1. With the improvement of people’s living standard, there are more and more electrical appliances in the family; the decoration grade is higher and higher; the use of gas energy is more and more popular; thus the possibility of fire. The risk of fire is also getting bigger and bigger.

  1.1. the more household appliances, the greater the electrical load, coupled with the fact that most of the decoration construction is not a qualified home improvement company, but individual plumbers without systematic learning. Electrical construction is quite irregular, resulting in repeated incidents of fire due to circuit failure.

  1.2. The higher the grade of decoration, the more combustible. More and more flammable items. Home furnishing items fire hazards are roughly as follows: paint (Class B), flooring. Ceiling closet desk and other wooden furniture (category C), curtains and other textiles (category C). This gives the occurrence of fire. The spread of a great hidden danger.

  1.3. With the improvement of living standards, people gradually give up firewood. Coal and other sources of energy, and instead use cleaner. Convenient energy sources such as gas. Natural gas. Liquefied gas, etc. Obviously, gas energy is much more flammable than solid energy, and, once a fire occurs and cannot be quickly extinguished, the gas energy supply system may explode at any time, making the fire more difficult to control and causing great damage to life and property.

  2. With the increase of income, more and more valuables in the family, once the fire occurs, the damage caused is also increasing.

  According to news reports, the general cost of home decoration is between 50,000 and 150,000, and the high-grade cost is higher. Luxury items in the home (cameras. Digital cameras. Home appliances). Arts and crafts. The value of collectibles as little as a few thousand, more tens of thousands. Nowadays, the damage caused by a fire in a mid-range residential building is very impressive. Moreover, a fire will inevitably cause casualties, and this part of the loss cannot be assessed in monetary terms.

   3. Once a fire occurs, it is difficult for fire engines to arrive and fight the fire in time.

  The fire code stipulates that fire engines must arrive at the scene within 10 minutes of receiving a fire alarm. However, under normal circumstances, people find the fire and call the police after the fire has spread for quite a long time; coupled with unforeseen factors such as bad weather, traffic congestion and blocked fire escapes, it is difficult for fire engines to reach the fire scene in time. In addition, due to the tight security measures in homes nowadays, it is difficult for firefighters to enter the room in time to fight the fire in the absence of the homeowner. Therefore, it is necessary to learn the experience of fire fighting in high-rise buildings, based on self-help, and design indoor fire fighting system.

  Feasibility of designing fire protection system

  There are two main reasons why the fire code does not require all residential buildings to design fire water supply system and fire extinguisher system, I think there are two main reasons, A: compared with other buildings, the loss caused by fire in residential buildings is smaller; B: the investment in residential buildings is relatively small, if the fire system is increased, it is bound to increase the investment, and then increase the development cost. For the first article, the author has made a detailed explanation in the necessity. As for the increase of investment cost, with the implementation of residential community, people are more and more agreeable to the investment outside the housing itself, such as community greening, security measures, electronic monitoring, etc.. In order to maintain the safety of life and property, increase part of the fire protection investment, I believe that the tenants will agree. In addition, with the advancement of fire fighting equipment, the cost of fire fighting investment is gradually decreasing under the premise of ensuring safety. The investment in fire fighting only accounts for a small part of the whole investment, but the role it can play is obvious.

  Discussion of specific design methods

  In foreign countries, there are examples of automatic sprinkler systems in low-rise houses (mainly used in high-grade apartments and villas), while China’s “Fire Office (1996) No. 108” stipulates that villas should be designed with fire reels, and villas should be designed with automatic sprinkler systems. But this practice is too expensive, only for part of the high-end residential, not suitable for the promotion of a large area, but also not suitable for China’s national conditions of developing countries. In our country, should consider the best way to combine the effect of fire extinguishing and economic conditions.

 1. Method one. According to the current practice of seven-story unitary residential building with commercial outlets, set up a firewater tank on the roof to store ten minutes of water for fire hydrants, and set up indoor fire hydrants on each floor, and set up fire extinguishers on each floor.

  This practice for fire safety is certainly very good, but the increase of water tank is easy to affect the beauty of the building, the tank is also difficult to manage. And this method for the increase in investment is quite large, unless there is considerable economic strength, in general is not very applicable.

  2. Method two. Layer set fire extinguishers, not design indoor fire hydrant system.

  This method is a very small investment, but the fire extinguisher’s fire extinguishing capacity is limited, it is difficult to maintain a lasting fire extinguishing capacity, so the method is not applicable.

  3. method 3: only in the first. Indoor fire hydrant is set up on the second floor, the water source is provided by the municipal network, and no fire fighting water tank is set up on the roof of the building. Design parameters: fire hydrant water consumption 5l/s, single gun flow 2.5 l/s, while using 2 water guns, water belt length 25 meters.

A preliminary study on the financial management methods of residential special maintenance funds in small and medium-sized cities

The Measures for the Management of Residential Special Maintenance Funds [Ministry of Construction, Ministry of Finance Order No. 165] mentions that residential special maintenance funds are funds that are specially used for the maintenance and renewal and transformation of residential common parts and common facilities and equipment after the expiration of the warranty period in order to guarantee the maintenance and normal use of residential common parts and common facilities and equipment.

By the owner to pay the collection. Since 1998, the Ministry of Construction and the Ministry of Finance jointly issued the “residential common parts and shared facilities and equipment maintenance fund management measures” to February 1, 2008, the implementation of the “residential special maintenance funds management measures” jointly issued by the two ministries, residential special maintenance funds management gradually improved, standardized, but for residential special maintenance funds specific accounting methods have not been introduced, especially Mehekou City, such as County-level cities, in the actual work of many problems, now combined with the author in the actual accounting work encountered in the problem to talk about immature views and practices, please correct me.

  Tesidential special maintenance funds without a clear accounting system

  The management of residential special maintenance funds accounting is not clearly defined is the use of enterprise accounting system or accounting system of institutions. In fact, the maintenance fund accounting is between these two accounting systems, it is more complex than the accounting of institutions and simpler than the accounting of enterprises.

The simple accounting accounts for business units can no longer meet the needs of residential special maintenance fund accounting. The business system accounts for the income of maintenance funds every quarter to ensure the value of the funds, which is a routine task in the business system, while the interest accrual of maintenance funds in the financial accounting system can only be confirmed when it is actually received.

And in fact, the interest receivable account does not appear in the newly implemented accounting system for business units in 2013. It is the business income, business expenditure, business balance, and balance distribution in the accounting system of institutions that are not suitable for the accounting of maintenance funds either. The enterprise accounting system has clear owner’s equity and undistributed profits in the accounting, which are also inappropriate for the accounting of maintenance funds. The end result is that this accounting fact cannot be fully and truly reflected in both kinds of accounting.

  Some ideas and suggestions for the financial management of residential special maintenance funds

  (1) Residential special maintenance funds should adopt the applicable accounting system and advanced accounting computerization system

  In order to better manage the housing special maintenance funds, an advanced financial software system can be adopted. This system should fully support the new 2013 accounting system for institutions, with the built-in accounting account system in the latest accounting system for institutions and related reports, and also support the customization of the account system, which solves the problem of using accounting accounts in the accounting system for institutions.

According to the needs of housing special maintenance fund management, you can customize the accounts or innovate some accounts. It has secondary accounts to buildings and tertiary accounts to households. Here it is easier to apportion the value-added income part of the special housing maintenance fund, and at the same time, the proportion of expenditure apportionment can be clearly seen when it is used.

  (2) Accounting account setting and accounting of assets

  Due to the special nature of the accounting business of residential special maintenance funds, it is suggested to set up two new accounting accounts of assets: deposits of residential special maintenance funds and deposits of value-added income, which should also include interest receivable and state bonds.

  1. Residential special maintenance fund deposit.

A new accounting account “residential special maintenance fund deposit” is set up to account for the money deposited into the special residential maintenance fund account of the entrusted bank according to the regulations. This account should be set up “residential special maintenance funds deposit journal”, should be regularly reconciled with “bank statements”, and should be prepared on a monthly basis “residential special maintenance funds deposit balance reconciliation table “The reconciliation shall be made on a monthly basis. The debit balance at the end of the account reflects the actual money in the special maintenance fund account of the entrusted bank.

  2. Deposit of value-added income.

A new accounting account “value-added income deposit” was established to account for the amount deposited into the special account for value-added income of the entrusted bank in accordance with the regulations. Receiving the interest income from the special residential maintenance fund account, debit this account and credit the account of “business income – interest income from value-added income”. In accordance with the relevant provisions for residential special maintenance funds management unit management costs, debit “special accounts payable”, credit this account.

At the end of the period, according to the provisions of the residential special maintenance funds, deducting the interest income from the special account for value-added income, the difference between the business income and business expenses, from the special bank account for residential special maintenance funds to the special account for value-added income, debit this account, credit the “residential special maintenance funds deposit” account. The account should be set up as “value-added income deposit journal”, which should be reconciled with “bank statement” periodically, and “residential special maintenance fund deposit balance reconciliation” should be prepared on a monthly basis. The reconciliation should be done on a monthly basis. The debit balance at the end of the account reflects the actual amount in the special account of value-added income of the entrusted bank.

  3. Interest receivable.

This account is used to account for the interest receivable but not received in the course of the operation of residential special maintenance funds. At the end of the period, the interest not yet received is calculated and debited to this account and credited to the account of “business income – interest income from value-added income”.

When the interest is actually collected, the account of “Deposit of value-added income” is debited and the account of “Deposit of value-added income” is credited. The debit balance at the end of the period reflects the interest receivable but not yet received.

  4. National bonds.

The establishment of the “national bonds” account, used to account for the relevant provisions of the residential special maintenance funds to purchase national bonds. According to the provisions of the residential special maintenance funds to purchase national bonds, according to the actual price paid, debit this account, credit the “residential special maintenance funds deposit” account. When the principal and interest of the state bonds are recovered at maturity or transferred in accordance with the regulations, the actual amount received will be debited to the account “Residential special maintenance funds deposit” and credited to this account according to the book value of the bonds, and the difference will be credited to the account “business income – – interest income from state bonds”. -Interest income from state bonds”.

This account should be set up according to the type of state bonds purchased. The debit balance at the end of the account reflects the value of the national bonds held.

  (3) Accounting and accounting for liabilities

  It is proposed to set up a new accounting account “residential special maintenance funds”, and another accounting account of liabilities also includes special accounts payable.

  1. Residential special maintenance funds.

This account is used to account for the collection, interest and payment of special residential maintenance funds. The credit side of this account accounts for the collection and balance of residential special maintenance funds, and its accounting content is as follows.

(1) the collection of residential special maintenance funds deposited by the homeowner, debit “residential special maintenance funds deposit” account, credit this account.

(2) according to the provisions of the housing owners residential special maintenance funds account for the annual interest, according to the accrued interest, debit the “operating expenses – residential special maintenance funds interest expenses” account, credit this account. The debit side of this account accounts for the drawdown of the balance stored in the residential special maintenance fund account of the owner of the house, which accounts for the following.

(a) the property owner for residential common parts, shared facilities and equipment after the expiration of the warranty period of repair and renewal, renovation and withdrawal of residential special maintenance funds account storage balance, debit this account, credit the “residential special maintenance funds deposit” account.

(b) The return of residential special maintenance funds due to the loss of housing, etc., according to the balance stored in the account of the owner, debit this account, according to the current accrued interest, debit “business expenses – residential special maintenance funds interest expenses” account, according to the actual amount paid, credit According to the actual amount paid, credit the “residential special maintenance funds deposit” account.

(C) in accordance with the relevant provisions of the residential special maintenance funds for the property owner account cancellation (such as the house has been lost), but the property owner for specific reasons (such as death and no heirs and no legatees) can not apply for residential special maintenance funds cancellation, should be the property owner residential special maintenance funds account in the storage balance to business income, debit this account, credit “business income –Other income” account. The credit balance at the end of the account reflects the balance of the property owner’s residential special maintenance funds account.   

2.Special accounts payable.

This account is used to account for the management costs of the residential special maintenance funds management unit. According to the provisions of the residential special maintenance funds from the value-added income of the residential special maintenance funds management unit management costs, debit the “value-added income distribution” account, credit this account. Transfer the management costs to the residential special maintenance funds management unit, debit this account, credit the “value-added revenue deposit” account.

  (4) Accounting for operating income and expenses and net assets

  The accounting accounts of business income and expenditure and net assets include: business income, business expenditure, value-added income and value-added income distribution.

  1. Business income.

This account is used to account for the business income of residential special maintenance funds. The following four detailed accounts should be set up in this account.

(1) Interest income of residential special maintenance funds.
(2) Interest income from value-added income.
(3) State bond interest income.
(4) Other income. The business income realized during the operation of residential special maintenance funds shall be handled as follows.

(a) Receive the interest income from the special residential maintenance fund deposit transferred from the bank, debit the “residential special maintenance fund deposit” account, credit this account (residential special maintenance fund interest income).
(b) Receive the interest income from the special account for the value-added income of residential special maintenance funds transferred from the bank, debit the account of “value-added income deposit” and credit this account (interest income from value-added income).
(c) when the state bonds are due to be recovered or transferred in accordance with the provisions, according to the actual amount received, debit the “residential special maintenance funds deposit” account, according to the book value of the bonds, credit the “state bonds” account, according to the difference, credit this account (state bonds (Interest income).
(d) In accordance with the relevant provisions of the residential special maintenance funds for the property owner account cancellation (such as the house has been lost), but the property owner for specific reasons (such as death and no heirs or legatees) can not apply for residential special maintenance funds cancellation, according to the property owner residential special maintenance funds account in the storage balance, debit “residential special maintenance funds ” account, credit this account (other income). At the end of the period, the balance of this account should be transferred to the “value-added income” account, debit this account, credit the “value-added income” account, after the transfer of this account should have no balance.

  2. Operating expenses.

This account is used to account for the operational expenses of the residential special maintenance funds, including the interest calculated for the residential special maintenance funds account of the property owner according to the regulations, and the fees paid to the bank in the daily work. This account shall have the following two sub-accounts.

(1) Interest expenses on residential special maintenance funds.

(2) Office expenses. The business expenses incurred in the operation of residential special maintenance funds shall be handled as follows.
(a) the annual interest balance of the residential special maintenance fund account to the owner of the house, debit this account (residential special maintenance fund interest expense), credit the “residential special maintenance fund” account.
(b) Daily work to pay bank charges and other related expenses, debit this account (office expenses), credit the “residential special maintenance funds deposit” account. At the end of the period, the debit balance of this account should be transferred to the “value-added income” account, debit the “value-added income” account and credit this account, and there should be no balance in this account after the transfer.

  3. Value-added income.

This account is used to account for the value-added income of residential special maintenance funds. At the end of the period, the following business income and expenditure accounts are carried forward.

(1) Transfer the credit balance of “business income” to this account, debit the “business income” account and credit this account.

(2) Transfer the debit balance of “operating expenses” to this account, debit this account, and credit “operating expenses”.

(3) At the same time, the difference between the business income and business expenses, after deducting the interest income from the value-added income deposit, is transferred from the bank’s special residential maintenance fund account to the special account for value-added income, debiting the “value-added income deposit” account and crediting the “residential special maintenance fund deposit” account. “account. At the end of the year, the credit balance of this account should be transferred to the “value-added income distribution” account, debit this account and credit the “value-added income distribution” account, if the balance is debited, make the opposite accounting entry. After the transfer, there should be no balance in this account.

  4. Allocation of value-added income.

This account is used to account for the distribution of the value-added income of residential special maintenance funds. At the end of the year, the accounting treatment is as follows.

(1) transfer the credit balance of the “value-added income” account to this account, debit the “value-added income” account, credit this account, “value-added income” account, if the debit balance, do the opposite If the balance is debited, the opposite accounting entry is made.
(2) The management costs of the residential special maintenance fund management unit should be withdrawn from the value-added income, debit this account and credit the “special accounts payable” account. The credit balance at the end of the account reflects the undistributed value-added income.

  The above are some of the author’s rough ideas. For the financial management of residential special maintenance funds, it is a brand new subject, and itself is a major matter involving people’s livelihood. Since China started late in this area, we can only move forward in the exploration and design a scientific and reasonable management model as far as possible to solve the problems in the financial management of maintenance funds, so that the funds can operate better and eventually take up the responsibility of serving the owners.

New rural dwellings scattered under the Yellow River dike in Kaifeng

  1 Introduction to the geographical location of the Yellow River embankment in the northern suburbs of Kaifeng

  The Yellow River is our mother river, but the Yellow River in Kaifeng section is very dangerous, since ancient times there is an old saying: the Yellow River is a copper head, iron arms and bean curd waist. But in Kaifeng old man passed down the words: “Kaifeng section of the river but tofu waist of tofu waist.” The reason is that the Yellow River in the middle and lower reaches of the river due to the continuous siltation of sediment, making the riverbed constantly elevated, even more than 10 meters above the ground in Kaifeng, forming a ground hanging river. The higher the riverbed, the higher the dike is built, the entire dam is hanging over the residents of the city, to the flood season is particularly spectacular.

  About 10 kilometers north from Kaifeng City to the Yellow River Liuyuankou Water Conservancy Scenic Area, you can enjoy the beauty of the Kaifeng section of the Yellow River embankment. This was the place where Lin Zexu governed the Yellow River. You can clearly see that the water of the Yellow River is 3 to 5 meters higher than the ground inside the embankment, and the river surface is open, the embankment is high and majestic.

Along the iron rhinoceros to the north, you can ascend the river view pavilion, enjoy the spectacle of the hanging river, appreciate the “Yellow River water from the sky, running to the sea never return” the magnificent momentum. Next to the monument, the flying geese and hexagonal pavilion is charmingly shaped, with lush flowers and weeping willows on both sides, and you can hear the sound of the Yellow River waves in the listening gallery. You can enjoy the magnificent beauty of the Yellow River embankment, visit the exhibition hall in the Yellow River Song Scenic Area, breathe the fresh air of nature in the dense forest scenic area, and taste the fresh Yellow River wild fish and delicious farmhouse dishes in the nearby farmhouse.

  2 Introduction of Kaifeng customs

  Kaifeng, abbreviated as Bian, is known as Tokyo, Bianjing, the ancient capital of eight dynasties, located in the eastern part of the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River Plain, in the middle-eastern part of Henan Province, connected with Shangqiu in the east, adjacent to Zhengzhou in the west, connected with Xuchang and Zhoukou in the south, and looking across the Yellow River from Xinxiang in the north. Kaifeng has a history of more than 2,700 years, and is one of the first batch of famous Chinese historical and cultural cities and one of the eight ancient capitals of China. At that time, Kaifeng was the largest city in the world.

  Kaifeng has a long history and many customs have been handed down, such as temple fair, lantern fair, bird market, chrysanthemum, night market, kite flying, cock fighting, pan drums and so on. The people under the Yellow River embankment are not so rich in material life, but they are very rich in spiritual style. For example, almost every family can play pan drums, and whenever there is a festival or a happy event, people will form a pan drum team on their own initiative. Pan drum rhythmic, rhythmic, varied sets, magnificent, lively.

  3 yellow river embankment under the dwelling

  Into the village under the Yellow River embankment, the old bungalow has been few, into the eyes of the many new buildings built along the road. These buildings are either perpendicular to the road or parallel to the road, so instead of rows of houses, you can see interlocking houses. Moreover, most of them are small two-story buildings, each with a large yard and a large roof deck. Farmers cannot live without land and have been cultivating it for generations. Although there is very little land, people cultivate what little land they have in order to make a living, even along the coast where the Yellow River recedes, but every summer when the Yellow River rises, much of this land is submerged, making cultivation useless.

However, due to the scarcity of cultivable land, villagers still go to plant every year, expecting that some of the land will be harvested when the water does not rise too much. Moreover, since the villages are far away from the Yellow River, the land on the banks of the Yellow River is cultivated at a great distance, so each family has a large yard where they keep a lot of laboring supplies and vehicles for transporting crops. A large roof deck is a must for every family, as there is little rain and plenty of sunshine all year round.

Therefore, it is convenient to dry crops and household items on the platform. Here, you can hardly see the sloping roof. As you can see, the architecture evolved gradually according to the local environment, and the architecture is closely related to life, the most important thing is to meet the use of the occupants. Many people still have cellars to store crops such as sweet potatoes from freezing in case it is very cold in winter.

  Nowadays, many new rural houses are built in almost one pattern, the same for each family. Rows and rows of neatly planned, without a bit of their own characteristics. But these small villages scattered under the Yellow River embankment, each family is different, although they are two-story buildings, although also brick, concrete floor, exterior brick or paint, but, each family has its own differences, no design drawings, many are often building houses with experience in leading a few workers to build according to the requirements of the main family.

Moreover, when they build their own houses, their relatives and neighbors will come to help them and share their experience and shortcomings, so that every year the new houses will look more beautiful and practical. Although farmers do not have high aesthetics, the people have developed their own unique aesthetics because of Kaifeng’s long history and rich cultural heritage.

Every family grows fruit trees and flowers in their yards, and they have chickens and ducks, and some have flocks of sheep, or pigs in their yards. During the New Year, when families are full of friends and relatives, the courtyard can be useful, playing cards and mahjong in the courtyard, or even eating and chatting in the courtyard. The open space outside the gate is a good place for children to set off firecrackers, and the roof is a place to set off fireworks at night. Although rural areas are poor, but the most important festival, fireworks are bought a lot, food and drink in large quantities, new clothes and new shoes are also necessary for each person.

The couplets are not only posted on the door, the windows are also posted, rice jars, noodle jars are also posted with the year, cars, large farm equipment, sheep pens, pigsties, and even on the big tree in front of the door is also posted on the “see the joy of going out”. This shows how much people love life. When you walk into such a house, you can feel the real life scene. Such a vibrant and lively building is the best building.   

Because the layout is different in both vertical and horizontal, and the households are staggered and rarely close to each other, so sunlight and ventilation are not a problem, and the houses in the village are scattered among the big trees, and many of them are also covered by shade trees, which makes them very shady in summer.

Due to the proximity of the Yellow River, the temperature here is always about 4 degrees below that of the city, making it a good place to escape the summer heat. And in winter, the leaves wither and the branches are bare, and the warm sunlight shines through the branches on the roofs. In the courtyard, people are sun-warmed and chatting, playing mahjong, and children playing, full of laughter in the sun. In the spring, the greenery is full of green, the trees are sprouting, the peach blossoms in the yard are blooming, and the wheat fields in the distance look like the prairie. In autumn, the fields turn golden, the ground starts to fall with yellow leaves, and even the roofs, walls and branches are covered with golden corn, a scene of harvest.

  The formation of architecture is inseparable from the specificity of the geographical location, different places have different forms of architecture, architectural style. The formation of architecture is also closely related to the local customs and people, and different regional cultures cause the local people’s unique sense of identification with architecture and beauty. The people under the Yellow River embankment in Kaifeng, in the era of booming modern architecture, cannot help but be influenced by it as well. The building materials have long been not traditional local materials, and there is no longer the traditional style of old buildings.

However, due to the importance they attach to the function of use and the pursuit of convenient living, the houses are made very functional and comfortable to live in. The spacious gate leaves a large open space in front of the gate and a spacious courtyard when you walk into the gate. The large carport built in the courtyard. The simple two-story building or one or two-story staggered building, the large south-facing windows, and the large roof deck. The design concept that the form of the building meets the function is effectively reflected. This is the place to live, convenient, comfortable and practical. Surrounded by green trees, these small courtyards are simple but with local characteristics.

Architecture originates from life and serves life, which is the constant purpose. No matter how designers design, they can’t deviate from this most basic requirement. The unilateral pursuit of the so-called “beauty” is not enough, and the single-minded pursuit of the shape of the building is also isolated. The definition of beauty is not the same, and the perception of beauty is different in different places and different times. The architecture is inseparable from the surrounding environment, and the mutual integration with the environment, the interdependence between buildings, and the harmony of the overall environment is what we want to achieve in designing the new countryside.

Therefore, as an architect, in the design of new rural construction, I have seen many buildings designed with a small yard, and even considered the space for putting farming tools and cars. However, without the experience of rural life, the two-storey buildings designed according to the principle of beauty are very neat and tidy, but they always feel lacking in interest and detached from the original rural life.

I deeply appreciate that the formation of a village is not only the architecture, but also the natural environment around the building and the customs of the villagers. Architecture “cannot be separated from the history it witnesses and the environment it is created in”.

Therefore, the designer must consult the users and, with their joint participation, design a new house that is more suitable for the village. Architecture cannot be separated from the original environment full of history, and the most fundamental purpose of design is to satisfy the material and spiritual needs of the users in different regions.

Discussion on the interior environment design of residential buildings based on the aging society

0 Introduction

Internationally, a world congress dedicated to the study of aging was first conducted in 1982, and Germany has proposed a new concept of housing specifically designed for the elderly – care and maintenance housing since the 1990s.

Developed countries are more advanced in the study of aging, in the case of China, the study of aging issues started late and did not study the living environment of the elderly in depth, how to build a living environment for the elderly with Chinese characteristics is the urgent need for improvement at this stage in China.

From the perspective of the elderly, we should build a living environment with sustainable development, improve the corresponding supporting facilities and services, and then improve the happiness of the elderly and promote the healthy and harmonious development of the society.

1 Basic requirements for the design of the interior environment of residential buildings for the elderly

Before designing the indoor environment of residential buildings, the physiological and psychological characteristics of the elderly should be taken into consideration.

First of all, in terms of physiological function, the elderly have a very obvious decline. The physiological functions and tissues and organs of the whole body have degenerated, resulting in the reduction of the body’s reserve capacity, which cannot provide sufficient physical support in crisis situations.

Secondly, the adaptive capacity of the elderly is reduced. Due to the decline of physiological functions causing the dysregulation of the body’s internal environment, changing their living environment in a short period of time may cause them to become uncomfortable with the water.

Finally, the resistance and self-care ability of the elderly are reduced, which will affect their own health and bring inconvenience to their actions.

On the other hand, along with the decline of their physiological functions, their psychological changes have also occurred. Their social role changes from being “needed” to being “wanted”, which reduces their self-confidence and sense of security in life, and they begin to doubt their ability to control their lives.

According to the research, elderly people generally have the following psychological characteristics: survival, return, attachment, symbiosis and loneliness.

Therefore, when designing the indoor environment for the elderly, it is necessary to make reasonable planning with the physical and mental characteristics of the elderly. Specifically, special attention should be paid to the standards of the environment, noise control, emergency call devices, gas leak alarm, warning lighting and heating and cooling.

This can reduce the infringement and stimulation of bad factors to the elderly, and also can make some adjustment to the spirit of the elderly, improve their health, ensure their convenient and comfortable living environment, and enhance their confidence in life.

2 The design of the main indoor environment of residential buildings for the elderly

2.1 Design of entrances and exits

As the physical function of the elderly is greatly reduced, the action is slower, the physical strength is weaker and the vision is poor, so the design of entrances and exits should be made of non-slip, wear-resistant and sturdy materials to prevent personal accidents caused by ground changes such as cracks and unevenness in the ground during use. In the design of the entrance and exit size, it is necessary to leave enough area for wheelchair gyration.

In the design of entrance/exit direction, considering the physique of the elderly, the entrance/exit should take the sunny side to open the door to avoid the influence of cold monsoon. The entrances and exits should also have certain designs for the shape of canopies and other items to meet the recognition and sense of belonging of the elderly.

2.2 Design of hallway and walkway

In order to meet the basic needs of the elderly, the design of the passage hall should take into account the space design of the chairs, benches and cabinets prepared for changing shoes and clothes, in addition to the gyratory conditions of wheelchairs and stretchers.

The reaction power and physical reaction of the elderly have been reduced a lot, in general, for the external stimulation of the elderly are more reactive, weak perception, in the aisle, aisle, room can not set the threshold, the best ground does not have a height difference.

And in the aisles where the elderly often walk around, install siding and handrails to help the elderly pass safely. On both sides of the aisle, 40-50mm diameter round rod horizontal handrails can be set at a distance of 40mm from the wall, and the height of the handrails should be 0.90mm and 0.65mm; on both sides of the aisle, 0.35mm high siding is set at the lower part of the wall.

2.3 Design of living room

The orientation of the living room of the elderly directly affects their health. It is best to ensure sufficient sunshine and good orientation to the maximum, preferably facing the south, with the north direction second, and the east and west directions will be very hot in summer, which is not suitable for the long-term living of the elderly.

The living room for the elderly should also take into account natural ventilation, open view and natural lighting, which can help the physical and mental health of the elderly.

2.4 Design of bathroom

The bathroom is an accident-prone place for the elderly, so it is important to consider the design of all aspects of the bathroom, including the area, toilet, etc. The unreasonable bathroom facilities bring a lot of hidden dangers to the life of the elderly.

In many families in China, the toilet still uses the squatting toilet, which is very easy to cause cerebral hemorrhage in the elderly; smooth ground, with a high difference in the ground will increase the chances of accidents in the elderly, often leading to falls and fractures.

2.5 Noise control and sound insulation treatment

All smashing, beating, knocking, especially the sound of metal crashing will bring bad influence to the elderly, especially the weaker ones. Even if it is music, the volume should be reduced as much as possible.

2.6 Gas leak alarm device

Since modern kitchens are mainly designed for piped gas, they generally have gas leak alarm devices. However, the memory of the elderly is not good and their hands and feet are becoming more and more uncoordinated, so they often forget whether the piped gas valve is open or not, so that the gas leaks and eventually leads to a big disaster.

Therefore, it is necessary to install special control valves for the elderly to prevent dangerous accidents due to gas leaks and in caused by gas leaks.

2.7 Telephone and emergency call button

The elderly network in the community is an unobstructed service system based on community services as the core of work, community nurseries, community health and wellness centers, home care service centers, community homes for the elderly, families with elderly people in the community as the target of service, and voluntary workers in the community as a supplement.

In the event of an emergency, the community will send the appropriate personnel to the home as soon as they receive a call. As the elderly are physically weak, they may have cardiovascular disease at any time when moving, eating, watching TV, getting up, bathing, sleeping and standing up, so they are in urgent need of assistance from others, so there are call buttons in the indoor and convenient places such as bathrooms where the elderly live, so that others can provide timely assistance.

3 The design of indoor landscape for the elderly

In addition to the above hardware facilities, the elderly also have special requirements for lighting. Their requirements for illumination are 2-3 times higher than those of young people, so local lighting should be set up in the interior, bathroom vanity mirror, kitchen console and sink to meet the needs of the elderly for lighting.

Placing plants with the scent of life indoors can beautify the indoor environment on the one hand, and delight the mood of the elderly on the other, helping them to build a positive and confident attitude towards life.

In the living room, you can use some plants that symbolize wealth and good fortune, such as seven-leafed lotus, palm bamboo, dragon’s blood tree, rich bamboo, scattered anemone luluo, etc.

In the bedroom can be placed some plants that help sleep, hanging orchids, aloe vera, cactus, cactus, calla lilies, tulips, etc. They also have a gentle, tranquil, serene role.

In the study, you can place plants such as Fulvous Bamboo, Manzanita, and Mountain Pig flower in the most sunny position. On the one hand, these plants are conducive to learning and improve one’s thinking ability; on the other hand, “bamboo” also has the symbolism of high. In addition, you can also put on the desk with the prevention of insomnia, the role of calamus to calm the mind.

Dining room can put some yellow-based plants, such as yellow roses, yellow carnations, etc., to increase the appetite of the elderly and promote health.

4 Conclusion

The current situation of aging in China determines the importance of solving the living problems of the elderly. When designing the living environment for the elderly, we cannot just consider the auxiliary facilities and size issues above alone, but also take care of the psychological needs of the elderly.

Housing for the elderly is not a luxury shelter with perfect equipment and barrier-free, so we need to inject more humanized design into the design of housing for the elderly.

Everyone will grow old, so it is our duty and responsibility to care for the elderly, improve their residential environment, and provide them with a better retirement environment.

From the perspective of the materials of furniture to explore the development of furniture industry economy

Abstract: In the current furniture industry, the use of furniture has become the main body, the development of furniture is inseparable from the progress of materials and technology, the economic positioning of furniture to gradually explore the entire furniture industry, the economic development of the current situation and future prospects. “To learn from the present, look to the future” need to have some in-depth analysis of the economic development of the furniture industry, but also from the design, construction, the overall decorative effect and other aspects to reflect the economic development of the furniture industry to study.

Furniture is an essential and inherent object in our life, and now the furniture has been gradually refined in the decoration design industry, so that people in contact with and use of the process to produce some kind of aesthetic pleasure and trigger a rich association of spiritual needs. In the whole process of production and development, the key lies in how to use the existing materials or to innovate a certain material, so that the use of furniture can be more extensive, but also has a significant impact on the economic development of the industry.

The positioning of furniture materials

Now furniture constantly reflects humanization, practicality and modernization, combining the long-standing Chinese traditional culture with modern fashion factors, so that the furniture has an essential enhancement of the shaping of the spatial environment.

The main types of materials currently available are: wooden furniture, bamboo and rattan furniture, metal and glass furniture, and plastic furniture. The rise in the use of science and technology throughout the world has led to a significant change in the materials of furniture, which on the one hand are more suitable for the requirements of modern economic development; on the other hand, tend to the perfection of all aspects of human requirements. This has led to the emergence of new materials for furniture, bringing new directions and characteristics to the development of the furniture industry.

(1) Environmentally friendly furniture.

After the basic needs of life are met, some people began to focus on the quality of home life, especially the impact of household products for health, so those based on the ecological industry, based on rational development, the use of natural materials produced to meet the user’s specific needs, beneficial to the user’s health, and has a very high cultural heritage and technological content of environmentally friendly furniture is gradually attached to people, green consumer The trend has also promoted the development of environmentally friendly furniture.

(2) Mechanical furniture.

Now the flourishing of technology, so that the production of furniture to form a more pattern of construction, mechanical furniture more focused on the use of machinery, mainly in the beginning of the manufacture of furniture, the material handling methods to mechanical production instead of manual operation, but the current technology has not yet reached the mechanization of the whole process of furniture manufacturing.

(3) Special type of furniture.

The use of microporous foam production foam, as furniture material elements, is now the embodiment of the special development of furniture materials. Furniture using raw material refining techniques to improve the material deficiencies, reduce the waste of human resources in production, while taking into account the use of furniture in a variety of environments, thus expanding the aspects involved in the furniture industry, bringing new economic innovation and benefits.

 The impact of the development of the furniture industry on furniture manufacturing

Furniture is people’s necessary consumer goods, furniture materials, production level and other aspects, reflects a country and region in a certain historical period of social lifestyle, the level of social material civilization, it accompanies the basic needs of people’s clothing, food, housing and transportation, and with the improvement of people’s living standards and continuous development.

The furniture industry is a labor-intensive industry, the cost of Chinese labor is inexpensive, and wood resources are abundant, China is gradually becoming the world’s furniture production base. The huge future market capacity, the many production advantages and the shift of the world furniture industry provide a huge space for the development of China’s furniture industry.

However, in recent years by the impact of the global economic crisis, furniture imports will be greatly affected, and even negative growth, causing serious impact on China’s furniture exports. 2007, China’s continuous growth in exports, trade surplus continued to expand, began to gradually change the long-standing macro policy of encouraging exports. Policy adjustments for exports accounted for about 1 / 3 of the gross domestic product of the furniture industry, no doubt has had a huge impact.

At the same time, with the continuous improvement of people’s income and living standards and the rapid development of the interior decoration industry, people’s requirements for furniture products style, grade, quality, the importance of the living environment, living and working space conditions will continue to improve and strengthen the demand for medium and high-end products will be rising momentum. The use of people’s demand for improved quality of living environment to promote the integration of a variety of brand products, forming a good interactive link.

The role of material changes in furniture on the development of the furniture industry

Furniture materials are the material basis of the composition of furniture, is the key to affect the cost of business generation, but also due to the changes in materials on the industry’s business sales also have a role in reflecting the level of productivity development at the time.

The economy of furniture materials includes the price of materials, the processing labor consumption of materials, the utilization rate of materials and the abundance of material sources.

China’s furniture industry has stepped into the era of fierce competition, by the furniture market supply demand, the price of raw materials have been forced down. According to the National Bureau of Statistics, in the first quarter of this year, wood production prices fell 4.2% year-on-year, and bamboo fell 0.2%. As demand increases, wood reserves continue to decrease and resources become increasingly scarce, materials similar to wood and economical and beautiful will be widely used in the production of furniture.

Various research institutions continue to innovate the utilization of materials to reduce costs, extend the life of materials, and expand the range of materials used to form a better cycle.

The development of materials for furniture today has permeated all parts of the industry and influenced the prospects for its development. After entering the 21st century, the Chinese government has not only increased the overall planning and construction of the city, but also proposed to accelerate the pace of urbanization and small town construction, the overall prosperity of the rural economy, accelerate the urbanization process, in order to further boost the consumer market and expand the consumer sector.

This initiative of the state will certainly further promote the residential construction in China, and thus will lead to the development of residential-related industries. The State Council has proposed the industrialization of housing according to the needs of society and development. This initiative will drive the standardization, serialization and industrialization of tens of thousands of products supporting housing. Due to the development of residential industrialization, residential as a commodity into the market, providing room for the development of various types of furniture and supporting products. In the next 5 to 10 years, in the context of the international furniture industry transfer, China’s furniture industry will usher in a second period of rapid development. This period is not mainly in quantitative expansion, but in qualitative improvement.

Therefore, China’s furniture industry harbors great market potential and economic strength.

Introduction to design teachers’ grasp of furniture trends and their application in teaching

As a design teacher to have a clear understanding and overall grasp of today’s trends, only then the teacher in the teaching process to provide students with the knowledge is the freshest and most cutting-edge design information. Furniture is a crucial part of interior design, and many interior design works reflect their design soul through furniture. Therefore, the grasp of furniture trends is crucial for an interior designer.

The trend of furniture development in today’s world

Through the Milan International Furniture Fair, the Paris International Furniture Fair and other major international furniture display is not difficult to find, simple, environmental protection, natural, humane, simple, personality, levels, intermingling, freedom, leisure, is still the mainstream of today’s world furniture trends.

1, simple: simplicity is beauty, the pursuit of the essence of furniture, simple and smooth lines, soft colors and harmonious structure, abandoning the complexity of the mattress, refuse to trivial, interpretation of light, simple and fresh style.

2, environmental protection: health, environmental protection concept seeped into the details of furniture design, the use of pure wood, rattan, bamboo, paper and other green natural materials and coatings, so that the home and the environment in harmony.

3, nature: such as a childhood memories, back to the homeland of the soul, close to the texture and color of nature, flowing back to the basics of the pure feeling, simple but full of confidence, simple but not boring, in the home space close to and enjoy nature.

4、Humanization: considerate, healthy, practical, functional, comfortable, intelligent, ergonomic, people-oriented design concept, so that furniture is not only a living appliance, but also a way of life, work, leisure, to meet people’s understanding of life and hope.

5、Simple: natural and simple colors, clear and natural feeling, give the restless heart a simple peace, so that the home becomes the release of pressure and liberation of the soul of the pure land.

6、Personality: to meet individual needs in style, style, size and use, or open, or introverted, the pursuit of bold, alternative fashion.

7、Levels: the use of space function and aesthetics and create a rich space level effect, advocate a free combination of furniture revolution, through the disassembly and combination of clever changes, the performance of space-time dynamic, complete functional conversion, the use of multi-functional expansion of space, become the theme of today’s furniture design.

8、Integration: western and oriental, classical and modern, simple and luxurious, natural and humanistic, sensual and rational, different materials, different colors, in either symmetrical balance, or conceptual conflict to achieve the beauty of coordination.

9, leisure: in the face of external pressure of life, home is the harbor of the soul, is a rest and recuperation of the rest garden, with color wielding state intention space, let the life of leisure and sensual, enrich the soul, is a kind of satisfaction in life. Emphasis on the quality of life today, in addition to giving furniture beauty and form and function and other elements, leisure factors should not be ignored.

10, freedom: advocate the freedom of self-indulgent lifestyle, is also the theme of this year’s popular furniture. The original sense of life brought from distant lands, into the modern home concept, enjoy the freedom of life taste, indulge in wandering in the spiritual realm of no self, in a limited space to create unlimited imagination.

Popular trends of Chinese furniture in 2012

1, classical Chinese furniture is still popular.

Once upon a time, when foreigners favor Chinese classical furniture, Chinese affluent class is madly chasing the so-called European style, “pure imported furniture” used to be their pride. And now, maybe it is the inevitable economic development, maybe it is people’s return to traditional culture, in short, the enthusiasm of foreigners for Chinese classical furniture is not decreasing, and the enthusiasm of Chinese people is also rapidly increasing.

The beauty of classical Chinese furniture lies in its composure, in its smooth structural lines and in the textural color of the material itself. As it uses precious natural wood, it meets the modern consumer philosophy of pursuing nature, environmental protection and health; its beauty also lies in the imaginative space it has left behind over the years and the deep historical and cultural heritage it is rich in, which can well highlight the owner’s humanistic temperament and individual interest, and is an indispensable and alternative extreme of quality and fashion in modern society.

In addition, classical furniture is also popular because of its value preservation and appreciation potential. And Chinese neo-classical furniture style innovation is still the first Chinese designers to solve the problem.

2, emphasize the cultural connotation of furniture.

The combination of furniture placement, furniture materials and elements, all have a subtle effect on home life. 2012, the designer more emphasis on the cultural connotation of furniture, advocating different lifestyles for different people design, advocate quality of life. And, in response to the diversity of people’s taste, will increase the selection of “liberalism” as an important theme style to promote.

3、Fine and fashionable women’s furniture products are popular.

From the marketing point of view, women’s influence on household consumption is growing, so in 2012 many furniture will be made for the female market. Gorgeous patterns, exquisite design, perfect shape, exquisite skills, showing the aristocratic female flamboyant, canonical childish temperament, set exquisite write fashion in one.

In addition, the realization of modeling, decoration, function, selection of materials, technology, close unity, with “simple, simple, natural, exquisite, comfortable” style of furniture modeling will be the main style of the future for a long time popular.

4, the choice of furniture materials show diversification.

Due to the constraints of the plaque of timber resources and the impact of aesthetic changes in people’s behavior, modern furniture materials can be used for everything, in addition to the traditional natural materials, wood, artificial materials, metal, plastic, stone, leather, etc. can be applied to furniture, the choice of materials, the use of diversified trends.

Furniture materials are designed to serve the connotation, therefore, whether wood, cloth, leather, rattan, metal or a combination of materials, will have their own wonderful.

However, in the diversity of furniture materials, natural materials, solid wood is still the mainstream of furniture materials. Because people’s aesthetic orientation has a “back to basics, back to nature” trend, and natural materials and solid wood to meet the modern requirements of people can reflect the vitality of modern life, but also to retain the traditional style of mind, wood and human beings have an ineffable emotional connection. High-grade furniture boutique contains a rich traditional cultural connotations of furniture is bound to natural solid wood as the production material.

Therefore, natural solid wood, solid wood paneling supporting technology and wood grain decorative paper, wood grain dipping paper, decorative panels, natural thin wood veneer technology, etc. will have a great development future.

The application of cutting-edge design information in the actual teaching of design teachers

In the classroom lectures to include more of these advanced furniture frontier information, more use of multimedia to let students see more and more knowledge. When students design interior works, guide them to use this popular cutting-edge information as the main reference indicator for design. Not only should students be aware of this information, but they should also be guided to use it flexibly. They will develop a sensitive “sense” of fashion.

In general, simplicity, environmental protection, nature, humanity, simplicity, individuality, hierarchy, integration, freedom, leisure, is still the mainstream of the world’s furniture trends. Whether international or domestic, with the passage of time, more fashion elements are integrated in the furniture. The intertwined use of multiculturalism makes the furniture form richer.

Simplicity humanization and environmental protection are still the shining points in today’s furniture fashion. A better grasp of furniture trends can help us better understand the true meaning of furniture, which can enable us to design more and better furniture and better grasp the pulse of fashion. It can also help teachers to better apply these popular elements in actual teaching and train designers with a more contemporary flavor.

On the relationship between consumer psychology and architectural decoration elements in store design

Consumer behavior psychology and store interior design

1.Consumer behavior and psychology of entering the store

Business psychology divides customers into three categories.
① Shoppers with a purpose. They have a purchase target before entering the store, so they have a focused gaze and clear footsteps.
② Selective shoppers who have a certain range of attention to products, but also pay attention to other products. They are slow, but their eyes are more focused.
③ purposeless visitors who go to the store without a certain goal, slow, unfocused gaze, irregular action.

The proportion of the three kinds of customers received by different stores varies. Named buying industries, for example, pharmacies receive many customers who are purposeful shoppers, and the interior layout should be functional first. Industries where customers choose to buy within a certain range such as stationery stores, food stores, etc. The design should focus on organization and order.

Compare the industries that choose to buy, such as fashion stores, jewelry stores, and toy stores. The design should make the space environment attractive. Mapping the customer action trajectory in different types of stores by tracking survey method can provide the basis for interior design. The mental activity of consumers when shopping is a combination of their own needs and objective influences. The goal of our research is the influence of external environmental stimuli on customers. The following are the eight stages of the psychological process of consumer buying activity;

Generally speaking, when consumers enter a store to shop, most of them go through the above series of psychological processes, although sometimes it is not so obvious. In store interior design, we should develop countermeasures for this series of psychological activities of the consumer, so that he can successfully realize the shopping action.

2.Cognitive process and visual psychology

From the above analysis, the beginning of a series of psychological processes is “attention”, which requires that the goods should have a certain intensity of stimulation in order to be perceived, according to the principles of visual psychology we can take the following countermeasures: 1.

(1) Enhance the contrast between goods and background. There are many kinds of visual information in the store, and people can only choose a few objects for recognition. According to the principle of visual psychology, the greater the difference between the object and the background, the easier it is to be perceived. It is easy to see objects with color on a colorless background, and easy to notice bright objects on a dark background.

For example, in interior design with dark colors and low lighting, while using floodlights to project light onto goods, so that customers’ eyes are attracted to the goods. Another example is light-colored goods with dark walls as a backdrop, while dark-colored goods with white shelves as a background are used to highlight the goods.

(2) Master the appropriate intensity of stimulation. In addition to highlighting merchandise. Advertising, neon lights, television, etc. are also used to attract customers. But stimulation beyond a certain limit will not work. The more the number of signs, the smaller the possibility of each piece of relative attention.

Overseas experiments have shown that the likelihood of attention decreases much faster than one would expect from a quantitative perspective alone. Adding a second sign does not reduce the likelihood of the first sign being noticed by half, while the effect of a third sign is much greater, and by the time fifteen signs have been added, the likelihood of a particular sign being noticed is much lower than fifteen-percent. Experiments have shown that the average person’s visual attention range is no more than seven, for example, presenting letters for a short time, the average person can only see about six, which is very useful for us to reasonably determine the number of commercial signs and advertisements, the number of groupings of counters and the range of space division in interior design.

3.Emotional psychology and buying action

After the consumer’s attention has been drawn to the product, a series of countermeasures must be taken to facilitate the successful realization of the purchase action. We can adopt the following techniques in interior design.

(1) Arouse interest. New and beautiful display and environmental design can make the products look more attractive. Foreign commercial buildings pay much attention to the diversity of display devices, often according to the product to design display devices, so that the characteristics of the product to be fully displayed.

(2) Induce association. The use of intuitive image of the use of goods to induce customers to use the association is very effective, such as children’s stores will be used by children’s bed, toys, etc. arranged in the form of a children’s room is much more vivid than the classification of the queue display, it makes the customer immersive. One of the famous post-modern architectural masterpieces, Vienna Opera Ring travel agency business hall, is also metaphorical and symbolic techniques to play a role in inducing consumers (members of the tour group) association.

(3) Evoke desire. Pay attention to the diversity of display devices, because beautiful display methods and environments are as attractive as, or even more attractive than, the goods, they make the fullest display of goods.

(4) Promote trust. This requires the style of interior design to match the characteristics of the merchandise. For example, a traditional style Chinese medicine store will make consumers trust more than a modern form of Chinese medicine store, while on the contrary a fashion store with a novel shape will be more competitive.

Architectural decoration elements and store interior design

The same goods, people tend to think that in a well-decorated store than in the night market stalls on the value of high. In the face of competition in the market, it is necessary to use the outstanding features of architectural decoration to win consumers. To this end, the following techniques can be used.

  1. Create a thematic context. In the interior design based on the characteristics of the goods to establish a theme, around it to form a set of interior decoration techniques to create a context, easy to give consumers a deep feeling and memory. For example, in the children’s animal toy store, the theme created by the designer is a paradise in the woods, with flannel animals climbing, lying and leaning on the trees, looking very lively and lovely. Such an interior space is plainly decorated, but the attraction to small customers is not weak at all.
  2. Repeat the mother theme. Some stores specializing in a certain brand-name products, often use the product logo for decoration, repeated in the door, wall decoration, display devices, packaging bags, to strengthen the impression of customers. Stores operating more varieties can also be a certain pattern for the mother theme repeatedly applied in the decoration, to deepen the memory of customers.
  3. Flexible change. Consumer trends are constantly changing, so the store should be able to adjust the layout at any time. Some foreign stores every week to make some adjustments, to give customers the impression of always new. For this reason, some flexible designs are also available in large numbers. For example, the ceiling of a bookstore is a grid-type track, and the display shelves are r-type wire shelves hung upside down from the track, which can be changed at will, and it is very convenient for the store owner to adjust.

Waker Associates of the United States designed a series of large shopping malls with high flexibility. Here the steel frame made up of standard parts becomes the main character of the space, and large advertisements, TV screens, product models, mannequins, etc. are installed on it. Because of the great flexibility of the steel shelves, they can be adjusted to different displays, providing consumers with stimulating and constantly changing information.

In short, without interfering with the goods, the careful use of various artificial decorative materials can not only make the interior design style distinctive, the characteristics of the store stand out, but also can play a good role in certain goods. In the era of increasingly fierce market competition, designers must use the above three points in order to provide a good basis for the store to win the competition.

Exploration of optimization measures in the technical management of building decoration construction

Building decoration construction project management usually means that in the process of building decoration and construction, construction enterprises should strictly comply with the system and regulations formulated by the state, in addition to adopt a scientific and effective approach in technical management, which is the most important one to create a relatively good environment and atmosphere, so that it can well ensure that the building decoration project in the process of management and acceptance To be able to fully meet the national or local acceptance standards.

In addition, on the basis of ensuring smooth construction, effective measures must be taken to continuously improve the construction technology of construction projects, but some construction enterprises in China in the process of management in the level of its still exists a certain lack, so it also makes China’s construction management of building decoration needs to be constantly improved and perfected.

1 construction technology management significance in building decoration

The construction technology of building decoration project occupies a very key position in the process of construction, on the one hand, to ensure the comprehensiveness of management, at the same time, also to carry out more comprehensive control of key links, according to different construction projects and the actual situation to do a more comprehensive analysis and research.

At present, the competition among construction enterprises is developing in the direction of white-hot, so in such a situation, the level of technical management of an enterprise has a very significant impact on its competitive strength, many enterprises occupy a very obvious advantage in material level, but in technical management ability still needs to be constantly improved, so in the competition will often be in a disadvantageous position.

Therefore, it is necessary for us to comprehensively improve and optimize the technical management of building decoration construction. First of all, a more scientific quality system should be established according to the structure of the enterprise, in addition to effective scientific management of it. Secondly, the construction technology process of building decoration engineering is constantly being improved and upgraded. Again, we should pay attention to management training work, and constantly improve the comprehensive quality and ability of management personnel. A more reasonable allocation of various resources. The last point is to continuously create exquisite decoration and decoration projects, and to continuously innovate the technical means of building decoration and decoration.

2 Measures to optimize the construction technology management of building decoration

2.1 Optimize the quality management of construction enterprises according to the actual demand

first, in accordance with the construction enterprise has been certified in the quality of engineering, occupational health of safety and construction environment management to find the shortcomings in the technical management of the enterprise, from the starting point of the problem to develop timely adjustment measures to follow up the project.
Second, in the design department staffing of the building decoration enterprises, according to the amount of engineering needs to configure the corresponding building decoration designers, and to ensure the deepening of the design reform of the decoration drawings, reflecting the artistic style of decoration design;.
Third, according to the technical management specification requirements for the configuration of technical personnel positions, the job responsibilities for the detailed provisions;

fourth, for the construction progress requirements of different projects, the technical management personnel for reasonable staffing and division of labor;.
Fifth, improve the quality and management ability of technical management personnel, organize professional skills training in stages, and strengthen the safety knowledge education of staff; sixth, from the establishment of the management organization structure, it should be appropriate to employ some senior technical management personnel to ensure the sustainability and advancement of technical management.

2.2 Optimization of the overall management system of building decoration

First, the construction technology specification of building decoration, the perfection and implementation of technical documents, is required in accordance with the relevant requirements of the construction enterprise quality system and with the development of technology to enhance, as well as the improvement of the team management cooperation and responsibility system of decoration technology, to ensure that the staffing and technical management of each technical post, to avoid the construction of decoration without clear responsibility or no responsibility for the situation, fully mobilize the enthusiasm and creativity of technical personnel.

Second, the implementation of the technical quality of the decoration of the handover work and management of technical files, in the pre-construction work of the building, should understand the content and provisions of the construction drawings, not after the construction drawings can not be used; third, to prevent blind decoration construction, technical quality of the handover work needs to be graded, critical processes or special processes are to be specialized technical handover.

2.3 Procurement of construction materials based on environmental protection

The fundamental principle of construction decoration is “scientific concept of development, building a harmonious society”, in the construction and decoration enterprises to pursue the maximum benefit of the basis, but also to establish a resource-saving and environmentally friendly enterprise stage development goals, to protect the fundamental interests of society to protect the environment. First, construction enterprises in the purchase of materials to protect the environment as the fundamental concept, the use of environmentally friendly materials and machinery and equipment to construction projects; second, to strengthen the awareness of technical personnel of environmental responsibility, increase the relevant management and technical investment; third, according to the concept of environmental protection, in accordance with national regulations to choose environmentally friendly building decoration materials.

2.4 Optimization of resource allocation according to construction progress

In the construction process, the efficiency of resource allocation will have a very significant impact on the smooth progress of the construction project, in order to prevent a large amount of waste of resources, we must do a good job in the process of construction organization design, and also in the process of construction of materials and various resources needed to optimize the allocation, from multiple angles, multiple levels of its appropriate Improvement and adjustment, so that the construction process can be more scientific and reasonable under the premise of ensuring construction safety, to ensure that the construction can be carried out within a normal range.

2.5 Site management based on building construction civilization

In the process of social development, to pay attention to the harmony of development must ensure the civilization of society, in this process it is necessary to create a civilized, scientific and standardized technical management, but also in the process of construction will be the first civilization.

In the process of construction management mainly includes the following elements: First is the comprehensive management of the technical work of the Ohman. The second is the optimal management of construction quality, and again is the scientific management of material circulation. The fourth is the improvement and perfection of the management mechanism according to the drive cold. The fifth is the optimization and adjustment of the construction site as a whole. The sixth way is the comprehensive and optimal management of the target position responsibility system.

2.6 Optimization measures of technical management on the basis of the need for change

First of all, the construction project marked on the as-built drawings of the increase or decrease and the specific quantity should be fully understood and mastered, especially to do a good job of keeping the technical data. Secondly, the progress information of the construction project should be carefully reviewed. Because there is a very close connection between each link of the building decoration, but the same project process construction time is very difficult to do one-to-one correspondence, so it will also create a great obstacle to the later management of construction materials, so in such a case, we must ensure the accuracy of the progress acceptance data, but also to its scientific and standardized management, so that Only then can we better ensure the quality and level of management.


Construction and decoration enterprises in the process of development must be in accordance with the changes in the market environment of the enterprise technical management system and the basic system of comprehensive optimization and adjustment, so as to better ensure the rationality of all aspects of construction, in addition to the optimal allocation of resources during the construction of the project, in the civilization construction management must pay great attention to the optimization of technical document management, only in this way In order to better promote the healthy and sustainable development of China’s building decoration project.

Discount Baby Moist Wipes Materials Producers, Suppliers

1 wet wipes machine manufacturer

We likewise make sure to keep up nearby regulations and principles, as well as maintaining overall guidelines. This is an essential cycle which drives their development for ecologically wonderful wipes and cleanliness arrangements that add to an all out cleaner and more secure setting for us to remain in. One significant space to focus on explicitly is your face, which is the reason we offer a broad scope of facial consideration wipes.

In this strategy, you load sheets of overlaid foil into a programmed machine which folds them to type a little pocket. In this sodden cycle, utilizing water and other substance compounds, you trade the strands into slurries. The flood of fiber cools and gathers to deliver a sheet.

The firm additionally conveys a few customer producers of clammy wipes, damp tissue/tissue towels, diapers, flushable tissues, etc. As an upward maker, we can tweak each step of the moist disposable clothes fabricating course of as per your specific needs. This makes us the appropriate counterpart for our worldwide clients in general.

Framework controls introduced upstream manage the street speed all through coordinated by enter from infeed. In this design, it makes a coordinated framework checking the flow of item as much as and into each essential bundling and optional bundling machine on the moist disposable clothes line. Transports with Slip-Torque have the adaptability to regulate the speed of different segments of the transport via a halfway controlled programmable rationale regulator and human-machine interface . As wipes are dropping not too far off, the rollers at the again end of the transport could be moving sooner than the ones at the entry finish. The product can be moving at variable velocities on various segments of the transport as directed by throughput necessities.

As a main worldwide producer of wipes and a creator of nonwoven supplies, Kimberly-Clark is aware of the stuff to avoid issues that might bring about waste and margin time. In many regards, the moist disposable clothes market was a result of those requests. Moist disposable clothes are convenient; we can take them any place we wish to go. They make tidying up quick and simple; there’s compelling reason need to chase after clothes and containers of cleaning arrangement. Pick the right moist disposable cloth and the cleaning errand can normally be achieved in a solitary maneuver, allowing us to return to our bustling days.

Producer of 70% isopropyl liquor basically based wipes for purifying, cleaning and disinfecting programming. wet wipes machine manufacturer We can offer confidential name dinners wipes with speedy kill occasions, wide range viability and a complete data pack showing all the EU really take a look at results. Clorox holds a portion of the world’s believed makers relating to Pine-Sol® cleaners, Poett® house care items, Liquid-Plumr® stop up removers and a lot of extra. Around 80% of their gross deals are from their top producers that hold the first and second piece of the pie in their classes.

2 With Natural Ingredients, we can create sodden wipe stock.  

Our top notch, an incentive for-cash our items are appropriated in extra than 20 global areas through driving retailer individual… Walmart has committed to purchasing a further $250 billion by 2023 to help home assembling and U.S. occupations. The firsts steps were taken for Kansan Materials and targets set for fresh out of the box new period nonwoven hardware and material assembling.

We have rich involvement with clean item space and approach numerous dependable uncooked material providers, so we will offer you the assistance of offering crude supplies. Self-loader moist disposable cloth machines take into account the making of many overlap sorts including “Z,” “C” and specialty folds. Wholesaler of business wipes for hand disinfecting, purifying and tidying applications. Shopping basket, rest room seat, wet, spray painting eliminating, treated steel, glass and wood cleaner wipes are accessible. Highlights embrace smelling salts free, non-combustible, non-scratching and eliminate mud, residue, oil or oil smircesh, water spots, fingerprints and smoke film.

The firm cases it’s EPA-enlisted for effectively cleaning and killing SARS-CoV-2. At long last, utilizing wipes is far more secure on our computerized gadgets than shower fluids, which is a goliath thought for the endeavor purifying business. On prime of that, we’re generally keeping watch for ways of enhancing our items to satisfy your precise necessities. We guarantee to convey results of the absolute best quality since we as a whole skill fundamental that is to every you and your clients. Each plant has bunches of workers and has expansive assembling abilities.

Reach us for additional data and to look through out how you can produce the best moist disposable cloth for you. With the appropriate healthy skin items, you can safeguard your pores and skin and keep up with its energetic appearance. This is since you are offering your skin with the legitimate supplements and cleaning your self all the more completely.

The nonwoven collapsing machine has a special plan for collapsing different types of moist disposable clothes. The moist disposable clothes machine can create wipes in an expansive change of aspects practically about width and length. You will find these moist disposable clothes included as a portion of a typical fixed cutlery bundle provided in eateries or alongside carrier dinners.

Purifying cushions are fiber wipes recently doused with liquor, water and other vivacious constituents for a particular guessed objective. Item Description Toilet Wet Tissue Paper Toilet Seat Wipes for Household Company Profile Jiangsu Purity Industry Co.,Ltd. Our delegates are situated decisively across the globe to deliver gifted client suppliers and a wide scope of after deals help.

Tape cement could end up being uncovered, and the joint shaped could contrast in adaptability from the base sheet. Base sheet roll length, width and breadth ought to be matched to machine set-ups. Converters can set aside time and cash, notwithstanding downsize how much waste despatched to landfill, by streamlining the size, width and distance across of the roll and getting it down deeply. As you’ll can see, our reality fabricating abilities are expansive and fit to your requirements.

Smasher Bearings

Top notch administration, climate agreeable stockpile techniques, presumably the most forceful quality-cost proportion, we committed to offer you quality brand direction. Truly invite new and old clients go to and assemble participation. What’s extra, you can save as a ton as 60% of the cost of another bearing.

The handling of the bearing seat opening ought to make specific the resilience, unpleasantness and cylindricality of the opening. In the event that the initial resistance is basically too little, the bearing freedom will be too little over the match, and assuming the power source resilience is only too huge, the match will become loosened. One of the fundamental materials used in assembling is Limestone. When mined, a machine squashes it to a small portion of its credible estimation. Given the significant estimation of natural substances rocks, it requires a robust smasher to finish the work and essential to its activity, a fairly huge bearing. We offer an assortment of jaw smashers of grouped sizes to meet your requirements.

For manual lubing watching the running hr and screen the temp is exceptionally extreme. In the event that the bearing leeway doesn’t arrive at the necessary worth, the freedom after establishment may be excessively little, which can set off the bearing to warmth up all through activity and the temperature will consistently rise. Late in 2020, a buyer reaching KC Engineering Bearings was encountering normal Cone Crusher Bearing disappointments. Their machines have been as a matter of fact “coming to a standstill” after exactly three months of activity.

Self-adjusting styler course (20000CCK/W33+H type) mounted on the tight sleeve. In Jaw smashers bearing oil We use Mobilith SHC 007 NLGI 00 VG 460 .The oil do pleasantly as look at to changed contender lubes. We had bearing disappointments more on external Main direction than pitman heading because of defilement with metal mud.

This client bought direction from new provider, regardless of how cumbersome I convinced him. crusher bearings The significant shaft is made of a nickel and chromium compound which permits the metal to retain the rubbing power. While placing in, apply thick oil on the decent contact floor and thin oil on the versatile floor, especially after the bearing is placed in, make sure to involve oil for the external ring slant bearing. Auto, work vehicle, machine instrument, electric machine, water siphon, horticultural gear, material apparatus, etc.

Consequently, the subsidizing cost computations for essential smashers are contrasted all in all in resistance with the complete costs of essential levels, including quarry face clearing, impacting, and boring costs. In many occasions, dump vehicles transport the stone to a fixed significant smasher. The hardest part of the work was to reestablish the shaft, because of the bearing seats had been fixed before. This necessary aptitude and great tooling for the machining, surfacing and amendment of seats.

This closures in a jaw smasher which offers an extra forceful piece and solid activity, with life-cycle upgrades of its mechanical and water driven components. The CT assortment can be fitted with a water driven switch help framework as required. A NEW on-line training module work in the use of heading in jaw smasher capabilities inside the quarrying and mining industry has been added to the ‘NSK foundation’ online stage. Likewise with existing substance, enrolled clients who effectively full the new jaw smashers module will get a testament essentially founded on the fulfillment of a 80% pass mark.

There are forty eight,312 stone smasher bearing providers, essentially arranged in Asia. The top providing country or region is China, which give 100 percent of stone smasher bearing separately. Capacities embrace reconditioning, fix, item coordination, application designing and prescient and preventive unwavering quality upkeep. The handling exactness of pack parts and parts can not meet the necessities, especially the handling precision of the bearing seat, which is likewise a significant variable.

The following is a fast outline of smasher configuration, wear difficulties and grease best practices. These will make the bearing temperature climb and cause irregularities. At the point when the devices is working, get familiar with the bearings cautiously, and refuel in time as per the directions. The oil opening is block; the bearing is limit off, too little oil or a lot of oil. To guarantee a demanding match of all mating parts, KCEB finished end machining to their own personal basic estimations. This would guarantee an ideal burden bearing limit during the existence of the bearing.

The customer had mentioned help to suit new orientation to an Extec Jaw Crusher. The current week’s tip is intrigued by one Mobil SHC Club part, who as of late asked how to appropriately grease up smasher gear. KCEB achieved an extreme examination, guaranteeing materials quality and laying out a real bond/grip map. The refined Quarry Cone Crusher Bearing was then sent off OTIF to the purchaser along with significant QCP. After ordinary bearing disappointments, there was an extreme danger of losing the smasher completely.