The necessity of designing fire protection system
1. With the improvement of people’s living standard, there are more and more electrical appliances in the family; the decoration grade is higher and higher; the use of gas energy is more and more popular; thus the possibility of fire. The risk of fire is also getting bigger and bigger.
1.1. the more household appliances, the greater the electrical load, coupled with the fact that most of the decoration construction is not a qualified home improvement company, but individual plumbers without systematic learning. Electrical construction is quite irregular, resulting in repeated incidents of fire due to circuit failure.
1.2. The higher the grade of decoration, the more combustible. More and more flammable items. Home furnishing items fire hazards are roughly as follows: paint (Class B), flooring. Ceiling closet desk and other wooden furniture (category C), curtains and other textiles (category C). This gives the occurrence of fire. The spread of a great hidden danger.
1.3. With the improvement of living standards, people gradually give up firewood. Coal and other sources of energy, and instead use cleaner. Convenient energy sources such as gas. Natural gas. Liquefied gas, etc. Obviously, gas energy is much more flammable than solid energy, and, once a fire occurs and cannot be quickly extinguished, the gas energy supply system may explode at any time, making the fire more difficult to control and causing great damage to life and property.
2. With the increase of income, more and more valuables in the family, once the fire occurs, the damage caused is also increasing.
According to news reports, the general cost of home decoration is between 50,000 and 150,000, and the high-grade cost is higher. Luxury items in the home (cameras. Digital cameras. Home appliances). Arts and crafts. The value of collectibles as little as a few thousand, more tens of thousands. Nowadays, the damage caused by a fire in a mid-range residential building is very impressive. Moreover, a fire will inevitably cause casualties, and this part of the loss cannot be assessed in monetary terms.
3. Once a fire occurs, it is difficult for fire engines to arrive and fight the fire in time.
The fire code stipulates that fire engines must arrive at the scene within 10 minutes of receiving a fire alarm. However, under normal circumstances, people find the fire and call the police after the fire has spread for quite a long time; coupled with unforeseen factors such as bad weather, traffic congestion and blocked fire escapes, it is difficult for fire engines to reach the fire scene in time. In addition, due to the tight security measures in homes nowadays, it is difficult for firefighters to enter the room in time to fight the fire in the absence of the homeowner. Therefore, it is necessary to learn the experience of fire fighting in high-rise buildings, based on self-help, and design indoor fire fighting system.
Feasibility of designing fire protection system
There are two main reasons why the fire code does not require all residential buildings to design fire water supply system and fire extinguisher system, I think there are two main reasons, A: compared with other buildings, the loss caused by fire in residential buildings is smaller; B: the investment in residential buildings is relatively small, if the fire system is increased, it is bound to increase the investment, and then increase the development cost. For the first article, the author has made a detailed explanation in the necessity. As for the increase of investment cost, with the implementation of residential community, people are more and more agreeable to the investment outside the housing itself, such as community greening, security measures, electronic monitoring, etc.. In order to maintain the safety of life and property, increase part of the fire protection investment, I believe that the tenants will agree. In addition, with the advancement of fire fighting equipment, the cost of fire fighting investment is gradually decreasing under the premise of ensuring safety. The investment in fire fighting only accounts for a small part of the whole investment, but the role it can play is obvious.
Discussion of specific design methods
In foreign countries, there are examples of automatic sprinkler systems in low-rise houses (mainly used in high-grade apartments and villas), while China’s “Fire Office (1996) No. 108” stipulates that villas should be designed with fire reels, and villas should be designed with automatic sprinkler systems. But this practice is too expensive, only for part of the high-end residential, not suitable for the promotion of a large area, but also not suitable for China’s national conditions of developing countries. In our country, should consider the best way to combine the effect of fire extinguishing and economic conditions.
1. Method one. According to the current practice of seven-story unitary residential building with commercial outlets, set up a firewater tank on the roof to store ten minutes of water for fire hydrants, and set up indoor fire hydrants on each floor, and set up fire extinguishers on each floor.
This practice for fire safety is certainly very good, but the increase of water tank is easy to affect the beauty of the building, the tank is also difficult to manage. And this method for the increase in investment is quite large, unless there is considerable economic strength, in general is not very applicable.
2. Method two. Layer set fire extinguishers, not design indoor fire hydrant system.
This method is a very small investment, but the fire extinguisher’s fire extinguishing capacity is limited, it is difficult to maintain a lasting fire extinguishing capacity, so the method is not applicable.
3. method 3: only in the first. Indoor fire hydrant is set up on the second floor, the water source is provided by the municipal network, and no fire fighting water tank is set up on the roof of the building. Design parameters: fire hydrant water consumption 5l/s, single gun flow 2.5 l/s, while using 2 water guns, water belt length 25 meters.